Monetary unit USSR - ruble=to 100 kopeks.
The USSR has been created on December, 30th, 1922, after association of RSFSR (the Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic) with the Ukrainian, Belarus and Transcaucasian Soviet socialist republics formed after October revolution on 1917 By degrees the USSR replenished with new members and with 1956 for 1991 consisted of 15 republics. The countries - the former republics USSR: the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kirghizia, Turkmenia.
Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia left composition of the USSR in September 1991. On December, 26th, 1991 is date of dissolution of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics, after signing in Alma-Ata chiefs of 11 republics of the protocol on education the Commonwealths of Independent States (CIS).
In the first years after October revolution and an establishment of the Soviet power there were no necessary conditions for permanent medium introduction. Along with pre-revolutionary money the Soviet exchequer signs (soviet notes) which in the conditions of that time have been subject to strong depreciation addressed also. Under the decree of Council of National Commissioners from November, 3rd, 1921 new token moneys of the sample of 1922 have been manufactured, and 1 rbl. in new signs has been equal to 10000 rbl. in old money.
Decree CK from October, 24th, 1922 had been manufactured token moneys of the sample of 1923, 1 which rbl. was equated to 100 rbl. of the sample of 1922 or to 1 million rbl. in token moneys of earlier issues.
On the basis of decree SNK from October, 11th, 1922 the Government bank had been carried out in November issue of bank notes in a chervonets (of denomination in 1, 3, 5, 10, 25 chervonets).
After the Great Patriotic War termination in the USSR currency reform has been manufactured. Since December, 16th, 1947 in the circulation token moneys in rubles of the new sample have been manufactured. All cash token moneys which were available for the population interchanged on new token moneys on a parity 10 rbl. in money of the old sample for 1 rbl. in money of the sample of 1947, except for a token coin which was not subject to an exchange and remained in circulation in former nominal value.
Since January, 1st, 1961 the standard of price by increase of a purchase power of ruble in 10 times is changed. In this connection the new token moneys which have replaced old on a parity 1 rbl. by new money for 10 rbl. in old money are manufactured (except for coins in 1, 2, 3 kopeks which remained in circulation and are obligatory to reception in all payments face value on a level with a new coin of these dignities. Since April, 1st, 1961 old token moneys have ceased to serve as a lawful legal tender.
Currency reform of 1991 (an exchange of large monetary denominations) pursued the aim to get rid of the superfluous monetary stock which was in the cash circulation, and at least partially to solve a deficiency problem on a commodity market of the USSR. The exchange of withdrawn denominations was accompanied by essential restrictions: 1. Exchange Deadlines - three days from January, 23 till January, 25th (from Wednesday till Friday). 2. No more than 1000 rubles per capita - possibility of an exchange of other denominations was considered in the special commissions till the end of March, 1991. In practice by a main consequence of reform there was a loss of trust of the population to government actions.