Manufacturing of paper moneys
For issuance of bank notes the central national banks, as a rule, answer, they attend to their "designing". The subjects of the plotting (outstanding people of the country, architectural monuments) are defined by group of advisers or the special commission.
Complex process of creation of money begins with banknote paper manufacturing into which time in paper weight introduce various protective elements - from watermarks and textile fibres to polymeric inserts, threads and the chemical reagents which are found out only by special detectors. The paper weight is well glued (for this reason new money "crepitates") that does a paper of stronger - it maintains some thousand double excesses.
At manufacturing of notes it is consistently applied three kinds of a seal: offset, penetrating (metallographic) and high (typographical).
The Offset method prints a background grid, various sockets, and on small notes also the basic drawing.
At an offset method conduction of a paint from the printed form on a material is carried out not directly, and through the intermediate offset cylinder. Therefore, unlike other methods of a seal, the plotting on the printed form is done not mirror, but to straight lines.
Printed and whitespace elements of the form thus lie practically in one plane, but their surfaces have different physical and chemical properties. Printing elements - hydrophobic, they well keep a paint, but push away a moisture. Whitespace elements - hydrophilic, i.e. Are well moistened with water, and a paint push away.
Paints for notes routinely divide into three colour groups - dark blue, red and yellow - and for each group the photomethod produces a separate printed plate (form). The paint from these plates is transferred on a cylinder rubber coating from which the polychromatic plotting is printed.
The Oryol seal - a version of offset printing which allows to receive smooth transferring of one colour in other is applied also. Production of the Oryol car technically cannot be retried on other equipment, and also by the most this car, without having first copies of forms. This method has been invented in Russia in 1890 by I.I.Orlov and till now is applied all over the world to fulfilment of high-quality polygraphic works.
the Metallographic seal (a seal from penetrating forms)
The Intaglio printing - transfer of the plotting from the printed form on which printing elements are deepened in relation to the whitespace.
the Relief printing
Drawing on large notes, serial numbers, and also some important elements on denominations of small nominal value for the purpose of protection against fakes are executed by method of a relief printing.
Printing elements on relief printing forms are possessed above whitespace, from here and the name. Historically this method, apparently, the first was extended in quality of technology of duplicating of the plotting (it Johann Gutenberg, for example, used).
Further such operations follow: slitting of sheets, cross kerf, formation of banknote packs, bandaging by their paper tapes-parcels post, packing in a thermofilm and others.