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Protection frames from fakes (1 part)

Modern notes have the whole set of the various protection frames hindering their fake.

Watermarks

Watermarks are till now one of the most widespread elements of protection as they are difficult for copying. The most widespread watermarks are portraits of historic figures, the State Emblems, and also geometrical figures (rhombuses, rings, squares), wavy lines. There are four kinds of watermarks: light (elements of watermarks are more light, than a background), dark (elements of watermarks are more dark, than a background), dual tone (first two versions combine) and multitone (but first two versions combine with smooth transferrings between elements). Watermarks on a paper have started to do in Italy in XIII century. For this purpose bent a strand in length about 5 sm in a ring and imposed on it a crosshair from strand pieces, and then sewed it to the top party of a grid of the draw form. When the damp bed of the future standard sheet started to consolidate in shape, over wires it appeared is more thin; as a result this place at examining of the dried up sheet on a gleam looked a bit more transparent. Since occurrence of a paper filigree (nearby 1270) all watermarks on rushed this method. On paper moneys watermarks have occurbed for the first time in England in 1697.

the Halftone engineering . In the middle of XIX century Englishm U.Smith has invented a new method of formation of halftone watermarks at which the thickness of a paper around a filigree varied smoothly, and the watermark became similar to a photo with soft transferrings of tones. It was reached thanks to the volume mesh screen whereas in a traditional method the wire figure for drawing creation was flat.

the Dandy-rollernaja of the technician . After the invention of the paper-making car with a continuous paper cloth there was a requirement to mechanise and process of formation of a filigree. J. Marshall, the English expert in manual draw forms, has offered for the decision of this problem the dandy-beater invented by it. At the dandy-rollernom a method of a strand of a filigree pattern were entered into the damp paper from above whereas at manual on the contrary - the crude paper any time lay on them. For this reason watermarks are visible more distinctly on a paper of manual manufacturing. Now the technology of reception of colour watermarks is developed.

Fibres

Sometimes by production of a paper for money in it add fibres. They can be coloured, that is visible with the naked eye, and uncolored, but shone in ultraviolet rays. Fibres can be distributed randomly or to take places in certain plots of a paper strips. In Germany since 2nd half XIX century to production of money have started to apply a paper invented by American James Vilkoksom, with the so-called "localised" fibres. At the stage of mould piece of paper weight to it added the most thin colour fibres, and poured out them through the spaghettis positioned over a wire screen of the paper-making car. To check up the validity of the monetary ticket produced thus, it was possible, trying to tear off a needle a colour fibre. If colour strips have been put not on the above described technology, and typographical method, it was impossible to hook them.

Fluorescent particles

Are entered into soft weight at paper creation. Diagnostics of authenticity of such paper is reduced to its check under special black light lamps. Fluorescent particles can sometimes create a certain composition or an inscription.

Confetti

Small thin multi-coloured paper disks, sometimes with a microseal, are entered into a paper pulp at manufacturing. Such confetti are capable to be shone in ultraviolet rays.

Stamping

Stamping (for example, in the form of a grid) is appreciable at denomination viewing under certain angle to light.

the Engraving

For exact transfer the first copy of a portrait or an architectural structure increases by a denomination of all nuances of the plotting at 10-15 time and is redrawned by the master so that copy lines were on identical distance from each other. The plastic form forms by not so much usual strokes, how much a thickening of lines which pass movement of a treatment of light and shade. Then this drawing is transferred in the photochemical method on a steel plate, and is more narrow then engraving on metal begins.

Filigree drawing

Portraits of people on notes, various vignettes, background grids consist of set of thin accurate lines which are visible only at the big increase. Precisely to reproduce them it is almost impossible.

the Combined drawing

One part of the plotting is printed on face side, and the second is put on the turnaround. On a gleam all elements of the combined plotting should coincide and form uniform drawing.

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