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Protection frames from fakes (2 part)

the Microtext (a microfont, a microseal)

Sometimes the drawing part is made not simply by lines, and the microtext repeatedly retrying dignity of the note, the bank name, etc. Sometimes the microtext fills in the whole plots without drawing, forming a note background. To make out it it is possible only by means of optical devices, and reproduction by usual polygraphic methods is hardly hindered.

Protective threads

The High-tenacity yarn (or a strip in width of 1 1,5 mm), coloured, sometimes magnetic, is introduced into a paper in the beginning of its drying and on a gleam looks as a continuous dark strip in a paper. Sometimes these threads in the form of a dashed line are visible and not on a gleam. This effect is reached by means of the special tool removing bed of a paper on separate plots over a thread.


The Laser ray stitches the smallest apertures which form drawing or figure on a paper in a denomination. Apertures are visible on a gleam, however - that is surprising - to the touch the banknote paper remains absolutely smooth. Such micropunching to counterfeiters to retry difficult.

Hot stamping

Sometimes to a paper by means of the special equipment attach a foil of a certain grade. Stamping can be blind or executed by means of a colour foil. Stamping happens flat and congreve when on an item surface there is accurately expressed relief plotting. In itself stamping is easily accessible, but the high cost price of materials and small productivity of cheap devices does a handicraft work very unprofitable.

Optical effect

At note turn under different angle to light vary colour, and at times and the plotting on the evolved plots. The most reliable, but expensive protection frames of this type are hologrammes or kinegrammas which are routinely applied on notes of high dignities.

a hologramme Laminating

The Hologram - the special tridimensional plotting executed on a foil or other material by a laser ray. The hologramme can be a part of the basic plot or have own plot. As a rule, hologrammes do on the basis of a foil attached to a paper by a method of hot stamping or a laminating.

5 000 Austrian schillings

In 1988 in Austria the note in 5000 shillings has been printed. It is the first denomination for all history of existence of paper moneys on which application from a foil (kinegramma) has been applied. On a kinegramma great Austrian composer Mozart has been represented. For today application of the optical plotting was widely adopted worldwide.

the Paint

The Paints used at manufacturing of monetary tickets, are more stable against action of various chemicals, than usual printing inks, and do not change the colour. Paints can incorporate special inclusions: metallized, magnetic, fluorescent. Fugitive colours and many other things are applied also chemically. Sometimes on notes of low dignities for replacement of more expensive watermarks in production use "invisible" paints. The plotting printed with them becomes visible on bright to light.

Magnetic paints contain special inclusions of magnetic materials which are easily defined by magnetic detectors. There are paints of black colour more often.

the Metallized paints - are switched on in composition of dye the metallized materials and powders. These paints create special visual effects in a composition of the protected document (a metallic appearance, sparks etc.) also can be defined simultaneously by the magnetic detector that increases protection degree. Besides, application of such paints considerably increases the fake cost price.

Invisible, fluorescent paints - paints which are not visible at usual day or artificial light, but at illumination by a special black light lamp start to be shone by certain colour.

Optically changed paints OVI . For a seal of notes of large nominal values the last years optically changed paints OVI having a metallic appearance and capable to change colour more often are used at change of a point of view. Optically changed paints are manufactured by the Swiss firm SICPA on very expensive and difficult technology. It is necessary to mean that correct transfer of colour of the note to seales or in electronic form, unfortunately, is not always possible - as for technical reasons, and owing to that many national central banks do not allow to do it.

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