Short history of appearance of coins
Archeologists and numismatists have come to conclusion that coins have been invented independently in three different places on the Euroasian continent between 700-600 years BC Eto Lydia, India and China, as is shown in a map more low. There are the direct proofs confirming appearance of the first coins in Lydia, and indirect demonstrations testify to appearance of coins in India and China during this period of time only.
The Form and a method of manufacturing of coins can be considered as the indirect demonstration of their independent invention in China. The Chinese coins have been made of non-ferrous metals by moulding. The first Chinese coins, possibly, have been produced in a valley of Yellow river. They are decanted in the form of diminutive mattocks, shovels and knifes, during board of a dynasty of the Zhou, about 10th century B.C.
On peninsula Shandong some copies of coins in the form of shovels with the pointed edges are found, dated about 600 years BC But time of manufacturing of these coins is not considered definitive many scientists. There are significant divergences between numismatical scientists. The coin in the form of a shovel with the pointed edges and a handle with a cutout is called as "Pu". Some scientists assume its first Chinese coin. But these copies cannot be considered as the present coins in the absence of stamping and an inscription on their planes though all of them have one weight - 3 liang (1 liang=24, 1 shus=0,56.
the Coin in the form of a shovel with the pointed edges and a handle with a cutout
The Coin in the form of a shovel with a flat handle has occurbed about 400 years BC It answers all conditions to be the present coin. Has a stamp with a nominal value inscription. Coins in the form of a shovel with a flat handle have been manufactured in three kinds - 1 / 2 liangs (12 shus), 1 liang (24 shus) and 2 liang (48 shus). Them named "Ch'ien". This word later began to mean money in the Chinese language.
the Coin in the form of a shovel with a flat handle
The Coin in the form of a shovel with a narrowed handle has occurbed about 300 years BC Was manufactured in two nominal values 1 / 2 liangs (10 shus) and 1 liang (20 shus).
the Coin in the form of a shovel with a narrowed handle
Coins in the form of a knife have occurbed about 500 BC in a valley of Yellow river. Them "Ch'is" knifes named. Coins in the form of a knife weighed on the average from 15 to 16 grammes or about 30 shus.
the Coin in the form of a knife
Round coins with a round aperture in the center have occurbed about 300 years BC On them the nominal value and a mint sign have been rapped out. Are decanted in the new standard of weight - 1 / 2 liang (10 shus or 5 gramme) and 1 liang (20 shus or 10 gramme).
the Round coin with a round aperture in the center