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the Process of manufacture (stampings) of dollar coins of the USA (1 part)

After two and a half a millenium after the invention of coins in spite of the fact that all of us we rely more on notes and plastic cards it is difficult to imagine that you leave the house without a trifle in a pocket.

Ancient coins

It is necessary, that coins could not be forged and that they could maintain daily operation, passing through ten thousand hands for all term of the 30-year-old service.

Coins

Complex process of working out and their manufacturing is necessary For observance of these conditions. Annually the Exchequer of the USA mints to 20 billion coins of a mass edition and 1 billion coins of special issues. All of them are developed by group of designers of Exchequer of the USA. Before to start working out of own interpretation designers study portraits of presidents.

the Portrait of the American president

Portraits should be not only very similar, but also carefully developed to transfer them on a coin. Because at a following stage this drawing will be transformed into tridimensional model (bas-relief). The sculptor carefully draws drawing on clay bed, then by degrees does its relief. The ready model from clay the extremely fragile, therefore at first it is moulded from plaster, and then the sculptor starts to add fine details.

Plaster mould

These details not only add to appeal coins, but also to forge them to become much more difficult. The following stage - to reduce a gypseous bas-relief. For this purpose there is an invention - the mechanism for conduction of engravers. Having loaded into it a plaster cast the operator covers its surface with petrolatum. When the mould rotates petrolatum greases a needle which sluggishly deglovings a relief on a spiral. This needle reads out roughnesses in a template and by means of a number of difficult manipulations the plotting decreases to one twentieth from the initial size. Simultaneously the plotting is cut out on a steel pig by means of the engraving tool constantly humidified with butter.

Master Stamp

It is slow process and plotting conduction can take about three days. The master stamp is as a result received. But despite the fact that what the plotting on a surface of a master stamp of the correct size it cannot be used for stamping of ready coins because the received plotting will be turned. At a following stage it is necessary to transform the positive plotting in negative, transferring it on hundreds cliche. In comparison with a steel stamp these cliches are made of softer metal and when the operator does a print, the cliche changes the form and the perfect negative plotting is received.

Cliche

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