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Dead Indo-European languages

Linguists-historians know that in the past existed at least a little dead, i.e. Nowadays obsolete, Indo-European languages and groups. From one dead languages there was a rich writing, from others - all some words in ancient inscriptions on gravestones or rings, in place names or in glosses (citing of words) with antique authors, about the third, disappeared completely, it is possible to guess only...

Dead language

On peninsula Asia Minor in II-I millenia the powerful group of Hittite-Luwian (Anatolian) languages BC prospered. Names to all languages entering into this group, a distance scientists. Anatolian writing has reached us in cuneiform and hieroglyphic variants. In 1915 has deciphered Hittite cuneiform letters and has proved their Indo-European character the Czech scientist Bedrzhih Grozny. Monuments of Hittite language are dated XVIII-XIII centuries BC: it is one of the most ancient records of Indo-European speech.

The Hittite-Luwian branch has separated from an Indo-European trunk before others. Some experts in comparative-historical linguistics believe that Hittite-Luwian and other Indo-European languages can be considered as two families equal in rights, and together they make an Indo-Hittite a macrofamily. Despite so significant tearing up between Hittite and, say, the slavic languages, some words at them wonderfully coincide.

Far in the east, in the Chinese Turkestan (Xinjiang), to the north of desert Takla Makan where, apparently, there could be no indo-Europeans, in the end of XIX - the beginning of XX century mysterious manuscripts V-XIII d.C. They have found out centuries represent the transfers of Buddhist texts written by the North Indian letter into language unfamiliar to researchers. Indo-European character of this language or, more precisely, two closely related languages has been convincingly proved, however they did not concern one of known Indo-European groups. It was found out that the found out languages make the independent group which has received the conditional and inexact name Tocharic (the "present" Tocharianses are absolutely other people).

It is known about such classic languages as Thracian (the northeast of Balkan peninsula and the northwest of Asia Minor), Phrygian (a northwest part of Asia Minor much less), are even less studied Venetic (Northeast Italy and areas of Yugoslavia adjoining to it and Austria), pelasgiysky (in territory of the Ancient Greece before arrival there Greeks). Some make independent groups of them in borders of an Indo-European family, anything certain it is impossible to tell about a group accessory of others.


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