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Language and dialects

Language cannot be absolutely uniform. People of different generations speak unequally. Old men, listening young, are surprised, their language is how much spoilt., On the contrary, speech of old men seems to youth old-fashioned. Nevertheless distinctions are routinely insignificant, and they can be ignored.

The Greatest distinctions in this or that language, as a rule, are connected with the space factor. Different territorial variants of language are called as dialects. Dialects have developed during old time when people lived all life on one place and did not travel almost, short of an epoch of wars and resettlements. Language always, let it is sluggish, but it is changed, and differently in various places. In due course dialects could disperse so that mutual understanding was infringed, there were different languages.

Mao Tszedun

The Question on distinction of language and a dialect is rather combined. Quite often different languages are closer one another, than dialects of one language among themselves. Many Turkic languages differ from each other very little. At the same time carriers of northern and southern Chinese dialects at all do not understand one another. The long-term chief of China Mao Tszedun almost did not act publicly because it came from the south and hardly spoke how it is accepted in metropolitan Beijing. In Japan inhabitants of the villages removed on 30 km, often not can understand one another.

Thus, on the basis of only linguistic yielded to distinguish a dialect and language it is impossible. The consciousness of an ethnic generality is important. Language distinctions in one people are perceived as dialect; language distinctions between the different people (let at all so big) are evaluated as distinction of languages. Other factor - availability of writing and literary norm. If for two language educations there is a general literary norm them recognise as dialects. The same Mao Tszedun possessed written norm, and all competent Chineses understood it. If such norm is not present in general as in case with unwritten languages, to delimit language from a dialect very difficultly.

Dialects happen not only territorial, but also social. In many companies the people belonging to various social strata, and sometimes even to different trades differently speak. Such distinctions can be positioned specially. In late feudal Japan XVII-XIX centuries it was strictly recommended, as soldiers-Samurais, peasants, handicraftsmen, dealers should speak; also representatives of the isolated social groups in a special way spoke: geishas, fighters a sumo, gangsters-yakuzas etc. In modern companies such language distinctions routinely smooth out, whereas territorial dialects appear much more stable.

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