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Esperanto language

Language diversity always prevented to communicate to the people with one another, therefore since the most ancient times people dreamt of language, clear for all. Such scientists and philosophers, as Platon, R.Descartes, I.Njuton, G.V.Lejbnits attended to an international language problem.

Various designs of artificial international languages more than 2 thousand For dialogue between people (conversation, correspondence, the literature edition) were really used no more than ten. And only one syntheticly created language became the present live, high-grade means of the dialogue which is not conceding to national languages on riches, beauty, flexibility and expressiveness. It is the language of an Esperanto created by the doctor from Warsaw by a Ludwig Zamenhof (1859-1917).

Ludwig Zamenhof

L.Zamengof was born in Bialystok, in territory of present Poland which at that time was a part of the Russian empire. The city was occupied by Russian, Byelorussians, Poles, Jews, Germans. People of different nationalities quite often concerned to each other with suspicion and even is hostile. The Zamenhof since an early youth dreamt to yield people the general, all clear language to overcome alienation between the people. He has devoted to this idea all life. Studying languages in a grammar school, he has understood that in any national language it is too much complexities and the exceptions hindering its development. Besides, use as common language of any one people would offer unjustified advantages to these people, infringing upon interests of the others.

Over the design the Zamenhof worked more than ten years. In 1878 friends-grammar-school boys already with enthusiasm sang on a modern language: enmity of the people Let will fall, time has already come!. But the father of a Zamenhof working as the censor, has burnt work of the son, having suspected something unreliable. It was necessary to make a fresh start. And here on July, 26th, 1887 in Warsaw there was a small brochure in Russian the International language. The preface and the complete textbook. The author has taken cover behind a pseudonym Dr. Esperanto that in transfer from a modern language meant "hoping". This word the language name became fast. The Zamenhof has refused at once copyrights to the invention, having allowed to introduce to improvement language. However its working out was rather successful, basic changes practically it was not required. The Academy of an Esperanto for the purpose of maintenance of unity of language, the assertion of new words and the decision of matters in dispute has soon been created, and in 1905 1st World congress of an Esperanto has taken place.

The History of an Esperanto is complete of drama events. Two world wars have struck blow to movement of the Esperanto, them severely pursued Hitler and Stalin. But all the same the aspiration of people to free international dialogue has appeared more strongly, and Esperanto movement has again revived. The quantity of the Esperanto in the world reaches 20 million persons. The world congresses going to 6 thousand of participants are annually spent. On an Esperanto it is published over 150 newspapers and journals, regularly conduct transfers more than ten radio stations. In a network the Internet the second language on prevalence after English is an Esperanto. The number of the published books comes nearer to 100 thousand names - transfers of all of the best, created on national languages, and original products - prose and poetry, fairy tales and comics, the literature for all tastes. Performances, films, set of perfect songs is too an integral part of culture of an Esperanto.

The Grammar of an Esperanto consists of 16 rules which it is possible to find room on a small card; rules have no any exception. Each studying will find in an Esperanto something close to the native language. The Frenchman or the Italian will find familiar roots of words, the German or the Chinese - a method of education of difficult concepts simple addition of words, the Hungarian or the Uzbek - a method of word-formation by "glueing" of morphemes, the Pole - habitual shocking on a penultimate syllable, Russian - a free word order in the offer. The Esperanto alphabet is constructed on the basis of Latin, and each letter is read always equally irrespective of a place in a word and combinations to other letters. Thus, even for the first time having seen a word, you will not be mistaken in a pronunciation.

There is no the grammatical gender, different types of declinations and conjugations, irregular verbs, etc. Cases only two - nominative and accusative, and significances of the others are passed by means of pretexts. All nouns have the termination, adjectives-; plural indexes join them-j ' and an accusative case-n. All it does grammar of an Esperanto extremely simple and ordered. The first textbook of an Esperanto contained only 900 root words, however as from elements it is possible under simple rules to make of them new words with any shade of sense. There are also new roots, their number makes now about 20 thousand so that total number of words in an Esperanto basically is unlimited. Esperanto studying is switched on in the obligatory program of many schools in Hungary, Lithuania, China. There were such schools and in some cities of Russia, including in Moscow and Moscow suburbs.


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