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The German languages

Moving further on the West, we meet the German group of Indo-European languages which totals now 11 living languages. Languages, an Afrikaans and a Yiddish enter into the West German subgroup English, German, Frisian, Netherlands (Dutch). Frisian language is propagated in a province of Friesland (Netherlands), and also in some areas of Northern Germany. The variant of the Netherlands language propagated in Belgium (in Flanders), sometimes name the Flemish. An Afrikaans - language of a part of the white population of the republic of South Africa and Namibia, at the heart of it lie the South Dutch dialects. On a Yiddish tells the Jewish population of Germany, Russia and of some countries of Eastern Europe, it has developed on the basis of the top German dialects. In 1984 one of dialects of the German language, propagated in Luxembourg, has received the status of an official language of this state. Northern, or Scandinavian, the subgroup develops from Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Icelandic and Faroese. The Norwegian language is known in two variants - a Bokmal ("bookish way of speaking"), close on a structure to Danish, and a Nynorsk ("new Norwegian"), more reminding Swedish.

Distribution of the German languages

In the Swedish language except the population of Sweden the significant part of inhabitants of Finland speaks. Faroese - the smallest on number of carriers the German language on which speaks the population of Faeroes (Denmark) possessed in Atlantic (approximately equally spaced from Iceland, northern coast of Great Britain and west costs of Norway). In ancient Icelandic language the rich epic literature has been created. Icelanders well remember till now the sagas - legends and the legends narrating about the heroic past and saving many of ancient German mythology. Icelanders always were the highly cultured people, from an antiquity is universal the competent.

In the past there was a special subgroup - East German, but now from it remains nothing. Gothic language entered Into it first of all. Aggressive tribes of Goths originally lived in lower reaches of Vistula, but then have bypassed almost all Europe. In the middle of I millenium d.C. Goths have based the barbarous kingdoms in Northern Italy and on Iberian peninsula, however have quickly enough dissolved among local population. Longest Goths remained in Northern Black Sea Coast, including in Crimea. Here gothic language was remembered in XVI century by the Data of this language which had writing since IV century, as well as ancient Icelandic are very important for reconstruction to German and to Indo-European languages.

In the ancient time slavic languages intimately contacted to the German. As the proof of these ancient meetings between them numerous enough lexical drawings from the German languages in then still uniform pra-slavic serve: the prince, a top section, a copper, a dish, a lath fence, a glass, a log hut, a shed and even bread (it is final, at Slavs was also the name of bread, but the German word was used only in significance "sour, yeast bread"), is supposed that Germen borrowed a slavic word cattle {him. Schatz - "treasure"), after all the cattle in the ancient time served for accounts instead of money.

Among the German languages the most brilliant historical destiny has been prepared to English. Today it is the most widespread language in the world, the second on number speaking after Chinese. It native more than for 400 million persons that in two and a half time more than quantity speaking in other German languages. English does not know to itself equal as language of the international dialogue. More than half of all world scientific literature it is published in English.

The German group is adjoined to a certain extent by languages which have developed on the basis of English from its crossing with languages of numerous former English colonies. Such originally very primitive languages (on English hearing they sound approximately how for us a phrase of the foreigner, very badly knowing Russian, like My yours do not understand) carry the special name of pidgins-languages. The most develop from them and even recognised in some territories official, name the Creole. As an example of the last the Jamaican language can serve.


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