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Indo-Iranian languages

Having turned on the east, we will enter the areas taken by Indo-Iranian languages. This extensive branch of an Indo-European language tree is divided routinely on Iranian and Indian (Aryan) by groups. On number speaking (850 million persons) Indo-Iranian - the greatest linguistic community in an Indo-European family.

Distribution of the indo-Iranian languages

Modern Indian (new Indian) languages are propagated in the Central and Northern India, but also, in Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka and on Maldive Islands. The language situation in these countries is exclusively difficult. In the south of India the set of Aryan languages adjoins to languages of a Dravidian family. To new Indian the Hindi, language of the Hindu population, and its variant an Urdu on which Moslems of cities of Pakistan and some Indian states (speak a Hindi concern uses the special Indian letter of a Devanagari, an Urdu - the Arabian writing). Distinctions between these two versions of a literary language are insignificant and emerge mainly in writing, the colloquial language named by a Hindustani, is almost identical at Hindus and Moslems. Further the Aryan group switches on languages Gujaratis, Bhilis, Marathis, Punjabis, Assam (in India), Bengalis (to Bangladesh), Singhalese (in Sri Lanka), a Nepali (it is final, in Nepal), etc. The Gipsy language propagated far outside of the basic area of Aryan speech concerns the new Indian languages, including in Russia also.

The Indian literary languages have nice history. The most ancient in writing fixed Indian language is Vedic, i.e. Language - meetings of religious hymns, spells, church chanting. The receiving tank the Rigveda which has developed still in the end of II millenium BC Vedic language is especially known has replaced a Sanskrit which is known in two forms which have replaced one other - epic on which two are combined well-known and huge on the sizes of a poem "Mahabharata" and "Ramayana", and classical. The literature created on a classical Sanskrit, is great on volume basis, diverse on genres and is brilliant on performance. Vedic and a Sanskrit in aggregate name Old Indian. The grammar of the Sanskrit, created Paninis in IV century BC, till now serves as the sample of the linguistic description. p>

In the end of XVIII century surprise of the European scientists by beauty and severity of the Sanskrit which has found out much in common with languages of Europe, became an impulse to creation of a comparative-historical direction in linguistics.

The Iranian group - the greatest in an Indo-European family on number of languages entering into it. The Iranian speech sounds in modern Iran, Afghanistan, Iraq, Turkey, Pakistan, India, Central Asia and on caucasus. Besides living languages the Iranian group includes a considerable quantity of dead languages - both written, and not knowing the letter, but reconstructed on the basis of indirect certificates. Among the first a mention the literary language on which "Avesta" - the arch of sacred texts of ancient religion of fire-worshiperses - a Zoroastrians is written down first of all is worthy. Among the unwritten the Scythian language propagated in Northern Black Sea Coast, in territory of modern Southern Ukraine and the North Caucasus and terminated the existence is interesting one and a half millenia ago. Linguists believe that language successors of Scythians are modern Ossetins.

Ancient Iranians (Scythians, Sarmatians, etc.) were direct neighbours of Slavs. Contacts to Iranians have led to appearance in Russian of set of drawings. Surprisingly, but such drawings are so habitual words, as a hut, trousers, a boot, an axe; names of the rivers concern traces of stay of Iranians in Black Sea Coast, including Don, Dnepr, Dnestr, Danube numerous Iranian by origin.

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